Friday, December 28, 2007

Boeing X-50A

Boeing X-50 Dragonfly, formerly known as the Canard Rotor/Wing Demonstrator, is a gyrodyne unmanned aerial vehicle that was being developed by Boeing and DARPA to demonstrate the principle that a helicopter's rotor can be stopped in flight and act as a fixed wing. The X-50A builds upon the work of the Sikorsky X-Wing program of the 1980s by designing the vehicle as a multi-mode aircraft from the ground up. The X-50A is one of two projects funded by DARPA in its "Heliplane" program.

Wednesday, December 19, 2007

Wide area network

A wide area network is a network where a wide variety of resources are deployed across a large domestic area or internationally. An example of this is a multinational business that uses a WAN to interconnect their offices in different countries. The largest and best example of a WAN is the Internet, which is a network comprised of many smaller networks. The Internet is considered the largest network in the world. The PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) also is an extremely large network that is converging to use Internet technologies, although not necessarily through the public Internet.

A Wide Area Network involves communication through the use of a wide range of different technologies. These technologies include Point-to-Point WANs such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) and High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Frame Relay, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and Sonet (Synchronous Optical Network). The difference between the WAN technologies is based on the switching capabilities they perform and the speed at which sending and receiving bits of information (data) occur.

For more information on WANs, see Frame Relay, ATM and Sonet.

Wednesday, December 12, 2007

Molecular nanotechnology

Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, is a term given to the concept of engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. It is especially associated with the concept of a molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.

When the term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular-scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can produce.

Thursday, December 06, 2007

Cellular telephony

The most common example of a cellular network is a mobile phone (cell phone) network. A mobile phone is a portable telephone which receives or makes calls through a cell site (base station), or transmitting tower. Radio waves are used to transfer signals to and from the cell phone. Large geographic areas (representing the coverage range of a service provider) are split up into smaller cells to deal with line-of-sight signal loss and the large number of active phones in an area. In cities, each cell site has a range of up to approximately ½ mile, while in rural areas, the range is approximately 5 miles. Many times in clear open areas, a user may receive signal from a cell 25 miles away. Each cell overlaps other cell sites. All of the cell sites are connected to cellular telephone exchanges "switches", which in turn connect to the public telephone network or another switch of the cellular company.

As the phone user moves from one cell area to another, the switch automatically commands the handset and a cell site with a stronger signal (reported by the handset) to go to a new radio channel (frequency). When the handset responds through the new cell site, the exchange switches the connection to the new cell site.

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

What do you mean by Java platform?

The Java platform was urbanized at Sun in the early 1990s with the objective of permitting programs to function apart from of the device they were used on, sparking the slogan "Write once, run anywhere" (WORA). While this intention has not been completely achieved (prompting the riposte "Write once, debug everywhere"), Java is regarded as being mainly hardware- and operating system-independent.

Java was primarily promoted as a platform for client-side applets running within web browsers. This positioning was never very booming. While browser-based applications have had substantial success in displacing standalone applications on the desktop, in 2006 they were not time and again implemented as Java applets. The platform has been more doing well on the server side of the Internet.

The platform contains three major parts, the Java programming language, the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), and numerous Java Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The design of the Java platform is managed by the vendor and user community throughout the Java Community Process (JCP).

Wednesday, November 21, 2007

Constructors in C++

A constructor in c++ programming language is a function that initializes the members of an object. A constructor only knows how to construct an object of its own class.
Constructors are not automatically inherited between base and the derived classes. If you don't give one in the derived class, a default will be supplied but this may not do what you want.

If we don’t use constructor then a default one is created by the compiler not including any parameters. There must always be a constructor, though it is the default and empty. If you provide a constructor with parameters then a default will not be created.

Some points about constructors to remember

1. Constructors are just functions with the same name as the class.
2. Constructors are intended to initialize the members of the class when an instance or the object of that class is created.
3. Constructors are not called directly (except for through initializer lists)
4. Constructors will not be virtual.
5. Multiple constructors for the similar class can be defined. They must have different parameters to differentiate them.

Wednesday, November 14, 2007

What are the Differences between the touring cars and sports cars?

For the careless viewer, there can be a great deal of confusion when it comes to classifying closed-wheel racing cars as the 'touring cars' or the 'sports cars' (as well known as GT cars). In fact, there is often extraordinarily little technical difference between the two classifications, and nomenclature is often a matter of tradition.

Generally, on the other hand, touring cars are based upon 4-door 'family' sedans or, more rarely, 2-door coupe cars, while GT racing cars are based upon more striking vehicles, like Ferrari's or Lamborghini's. Underneath the bodywork, a Touring Car is sometimes more directly associated to its road-going origins, using numerous original components and mountings, while a top-flight GT car is often a purpose-built tube-frame racing chassis underneath a decorative body shell. Numerous Touring Car series, like the BTCC and the now-defunct JTCC differentiate themselves from sports-car racing by featuring front-wheel drive cars with less important engines.

On the other hand, while generally Touring Cars have a lower technical level than sports cars; there are famous exceptions to the rule. The Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM) is believed to be one of the most technologically highly developed racing series in the world, with cars that, underneath their four-door shells, are more purebred racing machines than the majority FIA-GT vehicles.

Thursday, November 01, 2007

What is Road running race game?

The Road running or road racing is the sport of running on a measured course larger than an established road (as opposite to track and the cross country running). Such a race or competition is called a road race. The Road racing provides competitors a variety of challenges to triumph over such as hills, sharp bends, varied roadway, inclement weather, and a large group to try to win against- or with. The Aerobic fitness, or the ability of the body to make use of oxygen, is essential to have to complete the long distances. The Anaerobic fitness, that is, the body's capacity at responding when there isn't sufficient oxygen for the muscle, is essential to charge up hills and past competitors on the finish line. The Road running is unique along with athletic events for the reasons that in many cases first time amateurs are welcome to take part in the same happening as members of running clubs and even in the existing world-class champions.

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Mounting of traffic lights

A typical exemplar of how traffic lights are mounted in California. Wealthy cities like Cerritos frequently have elaborate traffic light gantries. There are important differences from place to place in how traffic lights are mounted or placed so that they are visible to drivers. Depending upon the place, traffic lights may be mounted on poles positioned on street corners, hung from wires strung over the roadway, or even hung from horizontal poles or installed within large horizontal gantries that make bigger out from the corner and over the right-of-way. In the previous case, such poles or gantries frequently have a lit sign with the name of the cross-street.

In some places mount lights with their multiple faces set horizontally and others vertically. California is particularly fastidious in ensuring that drivers can see the current state of a traffic light. One entrance to a typical large intersection, with three through lanes, two dedicated left-turn lanes, and a crosswalk, may have as many as three traffic lights for the left-turn lanes, three for the through lanes, and a pedestrian signal for the crosswalk. And those numbers must be multipled by four to cover all four ways to enter a typical intersection. Additionally to being positioned and mounted for preferred visibility for their personal traffic, some traffic lights are also meant, louvered, or shaded to reduce mis-interpretation from other lanes. For instance, a Fresnel lens on a neighboring through-lane signal may be intended to prevent left-turning traffic from anticipating its individual green arrow.

The Traffic signals in Germany are placed at the stop line on same side of the intersection as the forthcoming traffic and are often mounted overhead with on the right and left sides of the road. The stop line position is done to stop crosswalk blocking and permit for better pedestrian traffic flow.

Thursday, October 18, 2007

The History of glass

Naturally occurring glass, like obsidian, has been used ever since the Stone Age. The first accepted instructions for glass making are in Egypt about 1500 BC, when glass was used as a glaze for pottery and additional items. In the first century BC the method of blowing glass was developed and what had once been a tremendously rare and expensive item became much more common. During the Roman Empire numerous forms of glass were created, generally for use in vases and bottles.

The Glass was made from sand, plant ash and lime. The most primitive use of glass was as a colored, opaque, or clear glaze applied to ceramics before they were fired. Small pieces of colored glass were considered costly and often rivaled valuable gems as jewelry items. As time passed, it was revealed (most likely by a potter) that if glass is heated in anticipation of it becomes semi-liquid, it can be shaped and left to cool in a new , solid, separately standing shape. In the first century BC, someplace at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, a new discovery caused a true revolution in the glass industry. This was the invention of glassblowing, both free-blowing and mold-blowing. The color of "natural glass" is green to bluish green glass. This color is caused by the changeable amounts of naturally occurring iron impurities in the sand. Common glass at present usually has a slight green or blue tint, arising from these same impurities.

The Glassmakers learned to make colored glass by adding metallic compounds and mineral oxides to make brilliant hues of red, green, and blue - the colors of gemstones. When gem cutters learned to cut glass, they create that clear glass was an outstanding refractor of light, the attractiveness of cut clear glass soared, that of colored glass diminished.

The Glass objects from the 7th and 8th centuries have been found on the island of Torcello close to Venice. These form an essential link between Roman times and the later on importance of that city in the production of the material. About 1000 CE, an essential technological breakthrough was made in Northern Europe when soda glass was replaced by glass made from a much more readily obtainable material: potash obtained from wood ashes. From this point on, northern glass differed considerably from that made in the Mediterranean area, where soda remained in general use.

Thursday, October 11, 2007

The real facts about Mars

Mars (Greek: Ares) is the God of War. The planet perhaps got this name due to its red color; Mars is at times referred to as the Red Planet. The name of the month March obtains from Mars.

Mars has been recognized since prehistoric times. Certainly, it has been broadly studied with ground-based observatories. But even very large telescopes find Mars a hard target, it's just too small. It is still a favorite of science fiction writers as the best place in the Solar System (other than Earth!) for human habitation. But the illustrious "canals" "seen" by Lowell and others were, regrettably, just as fantasy as Barsoomian princesses.

Mars' orbit is considerably elliptical. One result of this is a temperature variation of concerning 30 C at the sub solar point between aphelion and perihelion. This has a most important influence on Mars' climate. While the average temperature on Mars is about 218 K (-55 C, -67 F), and in summer, Martian surface temperatures range broadly from as little as 140 K (-133 C, -207 F) at the winter pole to roughly 300 K (27 C, 80 F) on the day side.

There is dreadfully clear evidence of erosion in many places on Mars together with large floods and small river systems. At some time in the past there was evidently some sort of fluid on the surface. Liquid water is the clear fluid but other possibilities exist. There possibly will have been large lakes or even oceans; the proof for which was strengthened by some extremely nice images of layered terrain taken by Mars Global Surveyor and the mineral logy results from MER Opportunity. Most of these points to wet episodes that occurred only for a short time and very long ago; the age of the erosion channels are estimated at about almost 4 billion years. However, images from Mars Express released in early on 2005 show what appears to be an ice-covered sea that was liquid very recently (maybe 5 million years ago). Confirmation of this interpretation would be an extremely big deal indeed!

Mars has a very thin atmosphere composed more often than not of the tiny amount of remaining carbon dioxide (95.3%) plus nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%) and traces of oxygen (0.15%) and water (0.03%). The average pressure on the surface of Mars is simply about 7 millibars (below 1% of Earth's), but it varies to a great extent with altitude from almost 9 millibars in the deepest basins to about 1 millibar at the top of Olympus Mons. But it is thick enough to support very strong winds and measureless dust storms that on occasion engulf the entire planet for months. Mars' thin atmosphere produces a greenhouse consequence but it is only enough to lift up the surface temperature by 5 degrees (K); much less than what we observe on Venus and Earth.

Thursday, September 27, 2007

Australian Identity

I believe this view was based on a normal Australian male living in those times (1958). In my view this image represents a person living in those tough times and who was fashioned by his/her environment making him/her the person that he was. This explanation also vaguely matches ‘Michael’ in Crocodile Dundee. A statement that well describes Dundee and drinks deeply on occasion. Although he is the world’s best self-confidence man. I believe there possibly was a lot of truth in this explanation at the time. Russell Ward goes into describing details like even words and I don’t think he could make this entire up in his head because it wouldn’t be published if it was totally not true.

During 1958 Australia was still a very youthful country with a small population based on people from many nations. The towns were small and jobs would have concerned manual labour rather than being ‘thinking’ jobs, eg: lawyer, doctor, orthodontist, etc. I think the conditions that exist in Australia back then could have shaped the person that Ward describes here to some extent. From my position this statement still holds quite a lot of truth, even today. They are frequently in the ‘public eye’ because they are popular and people know them from films or music and the media reporting of every scam and modify that goes on in their personal life.

Monday, September 10, 2007

Abraham Lincoln

The brave man of the familiar People. It had been an extended time coming. Terribly separated by the issue of slavery, thirty-one million American citizens were in 1860
Called upon to vote for 16th President of the United States. The Democratic Party meets at its National Party Convention in Charleston, South Carolina, in order to choose their candidate in favor of the presidency. Split over slavery, each section, Northern Democrats on the one hand and Southern Democrats on the other, presented its own conflicting proposal for the party platform.

In February 1860, Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi claimed that neither the Congress of the United States nor the territorial parliaments had the control to handle slavery.

Monday, September 03, 2007

Donkey jacket

A Donkey jacket is a minute buttoned coat, normally made of unlined black or dark blue woolen stuff; originally worn as a work jacket in the United Kingdom. When used as a work jacket, it infrequently bears the name of the company which supplies the jacket, or the name of the company for which the wearer works. The jacket usually has two large hip pockets, and at times an inside poacher's pocket. The donkey jacket is regarded as characteristic of the British manual worker.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Computer networking

Computer networking is the engineering discipline anxious with communication between computer systems. Such communicate systems comprise a computer network and these networks generally involve at least two devices able of being networked with at least one usually being a computer. The devices can be separated by a small number of meters or nearly unlimited distances. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of telecommunications, and sometimes of computer science, information technology and computer engineering. Computer networks rely a lot upon the abstract and practical application of these scientific and engineering disciplines.

A computer network is any set of computers connected to each other. Examples of networks are the Internet, a wide area network that is the largest to always exist, or a little home local area network (LAN) with two computers connected with standard networking cables connecting to a network interface card in each computer.

Monday, August 20, 2007


An hourglass, also known as a sandglass or sand timer or sand clock, is a machine for the measurement of time. It consists of two glass bulbs located one above the other which are joined by a narrow tube. One of the bulbs is usually filled with fine sand which flows through the narrow tube into the bottom bulb at a given rate. Once all the sand has run to the bottom bulb, the device is inverted in order to measure another time period.

Monday, August 13, 2007


Denim, in American usage since the late eighteenth century, shows a rough cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two (twi- "double") or more warp fibers, producing the memorable diagonal ribbing specialized on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. Denim was conventionally colored blue with indigo dye to make blue "jeans," though "jean" then denoted a different, lighter cotton textile; the up to date use of jean comes from the French word for Genoa, Italy (Gênes), from which the initial denim trousers were made.

Tuesday, August 07, 2007

Soul Bags

A Soul Bag is a bag used by Warlocks to hold more Soul Shards than they would normally be able to carry in conventional containers. The soul bag consumes a regular container slot, however, so it reduces the number of available slots for non-Soul Shard items. The value of the trade-off is up to the individual Warlock.

Soul Shards harvested by the Warlock are automatically stored in an equipped Soul Bag when acquired, making tedious Soul Shard housekeeping a thing of the past. Helpfully, soul bags also display the number of soul shards stored within them on the bag icon on the container tool bar.

Tuesday, July 31, 2007


A flower is the reproductive structure of those plants classified as angiosperms. The flower structure incorporates the reproductive organs, and its occupation is to create seeds through sexual reproduction. For the higher plants, seeds are the next generation, and serve as the primary means by which persons of a species are dispersed across the landscape. After fertilization, portions of the flower develop into a fruit containing the germ.

Sunday, July 22, 2007


Marketing is one of the most significant functions in business. It is the regulation required to understand customers' needs and the benefits they seek. Academia does not have one commonly agreed upon description. Even after a better part of a century the dispute continues. In a nutshell it consists of the social and managerial processes by which goods or services and value are exchanged in order to fulfill the needs and wants of individuals or groups. Although many people appear to think that "marketing" and "advertising" are synonymous, they are not. Advertising is simply one of the lots of processes that together constitute marketing.

Friday, July 13, 2007


Salad is a light meal — or, as part of a larger meal, much more of an taster — consisting of mixed vegetables (usually including at least one leaf vegetable) or fruit, frequently with a dressing or sauce, occasionally nuts and sometimes with the addition of meat, fish or cheese. It is generally seen as a healthy dish, although not always low in calories, salt, sugar, or fat because of the dressing that is often added. The word "salad" comes from the French salad of the same meaning, which in twist is from the Latin salata, "salty", from sal, "salt".

Sunday, July 08, 2007


A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. There are more than a hundred classes of wild roses, all from the northern hemisphere and typically from temperate regions. The species form a group of normally prickly shrubs or climbers, and sometimes trailing plants, reaching 2–5 m tall, hardly ever reaching as high as 20 m by climbing over other plants.Rose hips are sometimes eaten, mostly for their vitamin C content. They are typically pressed and filtered to make rose-hip syrup, as the fine hairs surrounding the seeds are unpleasant to eat. They can also be used to create herbal tea, jam, jelly and marmalade.

Sunday, July 01, 2007


Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. By extension, the term fishing is applied to pursuing other aquatic animals such as various types of shellfish, squid, octopus, turtles, frogs, and some edible marine invertebrates. The term fishing is not usually applied to pursuing aquatic mammals such as whales, where the term "whaling" is more appropriate. Fishing is an ancient and worldwide practice with various techniques and traditions and it has been transformed by modern technological developments. In addition to providing food through harvesting fish, modern fishing is both a recreational and professional sport.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007

Scientific Methods

The scientific method seeks to explain the complexities of nature in a replicable way, and to use these explanations to construct useful predictions. It provides an objective method to find solutions to problems in a number of scientific and technological fields. Often scientists have a predilection for one outcome over another, and scientists are conscientious that it is vital that this preference does not bias their interpretation. A strict following of the scientific method attempts to minimize the pressure of a scientist's bias on the outcome of an experiment. This can be achieved by correct experimental design, and a thorough peer assessment of the experimental results as well as conclusions of a study.

Scientists use models to refer to a explanation or depiction of something, specifically one which can be used to construct predictions that can be tested by experiment or observation. A hypothesis is a disputation that has been neither well supported nor yet ruled out by experiment. A theory, in the context of science, is a logically self-consistent model or framework for recitation the behavior of certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes the behavior of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis — commonly, a large number of hypotheses may be logically bound together by a single theory. A physical law or law of nature is a scientific generalization based on a adequately large number of empirical observations that it is taken as fully verified.

Saturday, June 23, 2007


The goldfish, Carassius auratus, was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated, and is still one of the most usually kept aquarium fish and water gardens. A comparatively small member of the carp family ,which also includes the koi carp and the crucian carp, the goldfish is a domesticated version of a dark-gray/brown carp native to East Asia that was introduced to Europe in the late 17th century. The mutation that gave rise to the goldfish is also known from other cyprinid species, such as common carp and tench. Goldfish may grow to a maximum length of 23 inches (59 cm) and a maximum weight of 9.9 pounds (4.5 kg), although this is rare; few goldfish reach even half this size. In optimal conditions, goldfish may live more than 20 years (the world record is 49 years), but most household goldfish generally live only six to eight years, due to being kept in bowls.A group of goldfish is known as a troubling.

Sunday, June 17, 2007


Coppicing is a conventional method of woodland organization in which young tree stems are cut down to a low level. In subsequent growth years, many new shoots will come out and after a number of years the cycle begins again and the coppiced tree, or stool, is ready to be harvested again.Typically a coppice woodland is harvested in sections, on a rotation. In this way each year a crop is available. This has the side-effect of as long as a rich variety of habitats, as the woodland always has a range of dissimilar aged stools growing in it. This is helpful for biodiversity. The cycle length depends upon the species cut, the local custom, and the use to which the product is put. Birch can be coppiced for faggots on a 3- or 4-year cycle, whereas oak can be coppiced over a 50-year cycle for poles or firewood.

Monday, June 11, 2007

Urban archaeology

Urban archaeology is a sub regulation of archaeology specializing in the material past of towns and cities where long-term human habitation has often gone a rich record of the past. Humans generate waste. Large concentrations of humans manufacture large concentrations of waste. Feces, kitchen waste, broken objects etc. all need to be liable of. Small numbers of people can dispose of their waste locally without heartening vermin or endangering their health. Once people began to exist together in large numbers, around five thousand years ago, such methods began to become impractical. Material would be brought into the new settlements but would rarely be taken out again.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007

Krill fishery

Krill fishery is the commercial fishery of krill, small shrimp-like marine animals that live in the oceans world-wide. Estimates for how much krill there is vary wildly, depending on the methodology used. They range from 125–725 million tonnes of biomass globally. The total global harvest of krill from all fisheries amounts to 150 – 200,000 tonnes annually, mainly Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and North Pacific krill (E. pacifica).
Krill are rich in protein (40% or more of dry weight) and lipids (about 20% in E. superba). Their exoskeleton amounts to some 2% of dry weight of chitin. They also contain traces of a wide array of hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases, carbohydrases, nucleases and phospholipases, which are intense in the digestive gland in the cephalothorax of the krill.
Most krill is used as aquaculture feed and fish bait; other uses comprise livestock or pet foods. Only a small percentage is prepared for human consumption. Their enzymes are interesting for medical applications, an expanding sector since the early 1990s.

Sunday, May 27, 2007

Introduction of Hard Disk

Hard disks were initially developed for use with computers. In the 21st century, applications for hard disks have extended beyond computers to consist of digital video recorders, digital audio players, personal digital assistants, digital cameras, and video game consoles. In 2005 the first mobile phones to contain hard disks were introduced by Samsung Group and Nokia. The need for large-scale, reliable storage, independent of a particular device, led to the beginning of configurations such as RAID, hardware such as network attached storage (NAS) devices, and systems such as storage area networks (SANs) for efficient access to large volumes of data.

Friday, May 18, 2007

Mealy machine

A Mealy machine is a finite state machine that generates an output based on its current state and an input. This means that the state diagram will include both an input and output signal for each transition edge. In contrast, the output of a Moore finite state machine depends only on the machine's current state; transitions have no input attached. However, for each Mealy machine there is an equivalent Moore machine whose states are the union of the Mealy machine's states and the Cartesian product of the Mealy machine's states and the input alphabet.

The name Mealy machine comes from that of the concept's promoter, G. H. Mealy, a state-machine lead the way who wrote "A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits" in 1955.

Mealy machines provide a basic mathematical model for cipher machines. Considering the input and output alphabet the Latin alphabet, for example, then a Mealy machine can be designed that given a string of letters can process it into a ciphered string. However, although you could probably use a Mealy model to describe Enigma, the state diagram would be too complex to provide feasible means of designing complex ciphering machines.

Sunday, May 13, 2007

History of pen drive

Flash drive with retractable USB connector several companies claim to be the first to have made-up the USB Flash Drive in 1998 through 2000. Trek was the first company to sell a USB Flash Drive in early 2000. However, their copyright does not describe the USB Flash Drive; instead, it describes a very broad family of storage devices, of which the USB Flash Drive is one.

M-Systems were working on developing the USB Flash Drive since 1998. The domain was registered by them in October 1999 and indicates that the USB Flash Drive was already in growth. In 2000 Dan Harkabi connected the M-System team and led the development of DiskOnKey. The industrial design was done by Ziba and the product won the IDEA award in 2001. M-System's patent rigorously describes the USB Flash Drive and its execution.

An IBM invention revelation RPS8-1999-0201 by Shimon Shmueli et al is the earliest known document to precisely and completely describe the USB-FD, and only the USB-FD. M-Systems manufactured the DiskOnKey for IBM, who in late 2000 was the first to sell the product in North America. Shmueli later founded KeyNetica, the first company that patented and developed the concept that mobile and smart storage devices are all one needs for mobile computing. Current implementers of the concept are U3 and Ceedo.

Wednesday, May 09, 2007

Integrated circuit

Integrated circuit

Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery
Microchips with a clear window, showing the integrated circuit inside. Note the fine silver-colored wires that connect the included circuit to the pins of the package. A monolithic integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of human being semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. This article is about monumental integrated circuits.

Integrated circuits were made possible by investigational discoveries which showed that semiconductor devices could carry out the functions of vacuum tubes, and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device manufacture. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous development over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. There are two main advantages of Integrated Circuits over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their mechanism, are printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed a transistor at a time. Performance is high since the components switch quickly and consume little power, because the components are small and close together.

Tuesday, May 01, 2007

History of recording studio

Near the beginning recording studios often lacked isolation booths, baffles, and sometimes even speakers. Designed for exist recording of a whole band or performance, they attempted rather to group musicians and singers than to split them.

With the opening of multi-track recording, it became possible to record instruments and singers independently and at different times on different tracks on tape. Therefore, the emphasis shifted to isolation and sound-proofing. In the 1960s, recordings were analog recordings made using ¼-inch or ½-inch eight-track magnetic tape. By the early 1970s, recordings progressed to using 1-inch or 2-inch 16- or 32-track equipment. Most modern recording studios now use digital recording equipment and the number of tracks is partial only by the capacity of the mixing console or computer.

General function computers are presumptuous a larger role in the recording process, being able to replace the mixing consoles, recorders, synthesizers, samplers and sound effects devices. A computer thusly outfitted is called a Digital Audio Workstation. Admired software packages for recording studios include Dig design Pro Tools, Cubage and Nuendo by Steinberg, Motu Digital Performer, Able ton Live and Apple Logic Pro. Apple Macintosh hardware tends to be favored in the recording organization, though much software is also available for Microsoft Windows and Linux. There are also devoted computers which integrate a recorder, preamps, effects, and a mixing console; these devices are also called DAWs.

A small, private recording studio is occasionally called a project studio. Such studios often provide to specific needs of an individual artist, or are used as a non-commercial hobby. The first modern project studios came into being during the late 1980s, with the start of reasonable multitask recorders, synthesizers and microphones. The phenomenon has flourished with falling prices, MIDI equipment, and inexpensive digital hard-disk recording solutions.

Friday, April 27, 2007


In economic business is the social science of managing people to systematize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular imaginative and productive goals, usually to make profit. The etymology of "business" refers to the state of being busy, in the circumstance of the individual as well as the community or society. In other words, to be busy is to be doing commercially viable and profitable work.

The term "business" has at least three usages, depending on the scope — the general usage (above), the particular usage to refer to a particular company or corporation, and the comprehensive usage to refer to a particular market sector, such as "the record business," "the computer business," or "the business community" -- the community of suppliers of goods and services.

The singular "business" can be a legally-recognized entity within an economically free society, wherein individuals systematize based on expertise and skill bring about social and technological expansion.

However, the exact definition of business is disputable as is business philosophy; for example, most Marxist use "means of production" as a rough synonym for "business." Socialist advocates government, public, or worker ownership of most sizable businesses.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007

Player Pianos

100 Later developments of the reproducing piano contain the use of magnetic tape rather than piano rolls to record and play back the music, and, in the case of one device made by Bösendorfer, computer assisted playback. Almost all modern player pianos use MIDI to interface with computer equipment. Live presentation or computer generated music can be recorded in MIDI file format for accurate reproduction later on such instruments.

At present, in 2005, several player piano conversion kits are available, allowing the owners of normal pianos to convert them into computer controlled instruments. The conversion process usually involves cutting open the bottom of the piano to install mechanical parts under the keyboard. Most modern player pianos come with an electronic device that can record and playback MIDI files on floppy disks and/or CD ROMs, and a MIDI interface that enables computers to drive the piano directly for more advanced operations.

Another company, QRS Inc. of the USA, make the most complicated type of reproducing piano system, called Pianomation, which does not have the restrictions of the other manufacturers products. It can play 80 notes at a time, plus fully orchestrated backing with vocals from original artists from the internal hi-fi system built in. QRS also have the largest software catalogue of 7000 titles.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007

Magnetic recording

Magnetic recording was established in principle as early as 1898 by Valdemar Poulsen in his telegraphone. Magnetic wire recording, and its successor, magnetic tape recording, involve the use of a magnetizable medium which moves with a constant speed past a recording head. An electrical signal, which is analogous to the sound that is to be recorded, is fed to the recording head, inducing a pattern of magnetization like to the signal. A playback head can then pick up the changes in magnetic field from the tape and convert it into an electrical signal.

Monday, April 09, 2007

Speed limit

A speed limit is the highest speed allowed by law for vehicles on a road.
Design speed
Speed limits are only peripherally interrelated to the design speed of the road.
In the United States, the design speed is "a selected speed used to establish the various geometric design features of the roadway" according to the 2001 AASHTO Green Book, the highway design manual. It has been changed from previous versions which considered it the "highest safe speed that can be maintained over a specific section of highway when conditions are so positive that the design facial appearance of the highway governs."
The design speed has largely been discredited as a sole basis for establishing a speed limit. Current U.S. standards for design speed derive from outdated, less-capable automotive technology. Also, the design speed of a given roadway is the theoretical maximum safe speed of the roadway's worst feature .The design speed usually underestimates the highest safe speed for a roadway and is therefore considered only a very conservative "first guess" at a limit.
85th percentile rule
An automobile dashboard viewing the speedometer with primary markings in miles per hour.Since the 1950s, United States traffic engineers have been taught the 85th Percentile Rule. The idea is that the speed limit should be set to the speed below which 85% of vehicles are traveling. The 85th percentile closely corresponds to one normal deviation above the mean of a normal distribution.
Every state in the United States statutorily or administratively picks a particular speed for a speed limit cap, meaning that no speed limit in that state may be set higher than the cap. A practical effect of this cap is that nearly every rural roadway in the U.S. has a speed limit that is well below the 85th percentile speed.

Monday, April 02, 2007

Sarus Crane

The Sarus Crane is a occupant propagation bird in northern India, Nepal, Southeast Asia and Queensland, Australia. It used to be found on accasion in pakistan, but has not been found silence the late 1980's. It is the world's tallest flying bird.

This is a very huge crane, 156cm in length, which is found in freshwater marshes and plains. It nests on the ground laying two to three eggs in a bulky nest. Unlike many cranes that make long migrations the sarus crane does not, meaning it cans expent the energy to raise both chicks. Both the male and female take turns sitting on the nest, and the male is the main guardian.

Adults are grey with a nude red head and white crown and a long dark pointed bill. In flight, the long neck is reserved straight, unlike herons, and the black wing tips can be seen; their long red or pink legs trail at the back them.

Sexes are similar, but young flora and fauna are duller and browner. The Indian, Southeast Asian and Australian species differ mainly in plumage shade. There are some slight size differences, but on average the male is larger then the female, and the birds are six feet tall with an eight foot wingspan.

These extroverted birds forage while walking in thin water or in fields, sometimes probing with their long bills. They are omnivorous, eating insects, marine plants and animals, crustaceans, seeds and berries, small vertebrates, and invertebrates.

Thursday, March 29, 2007

Ice Age

An ice age is a stage of long-term slump in the temperature of Earth's climate, resulting in an extension of the continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers. Glaciological, ice age is often used to mean a period of ice sheets in the northern and southern hemispheres; by this description we are still in an ice. More colloquially, when speaking of the last few million years, ice age is used to pass on to colder periods with wide ice sheets over the North American and European continents: in this sense, the last ice age ended about 10,000 years ago. This article will use the term ice age in the previous, glaciological, sense; and use the term 'glacial periods' for colder periods during ice ages and 'interglacial' for the heater periods.

During the last few million years, there have been many hostile periods, going on initially at 40,000-year frequency but more freshly at 100,000-year frequencies. These are the best deliberate. There have been four main ice ages in the advance history.

Origin of ice age theory

The idea that, in the past, glaciers had been far wider was folk knowledge in some alpine regions of Europe. No single person made-up the idea. Between 1825 and 1833, Jean de Charpentier assembled verification in support of this idea. In 1836 Charpentier influenced Louis Agassiz of the theory, and Agassiz published it in his book Étude sur les glaciers of 1840.

At this near the beginning stage of knowledge, what were being deliberate were the glacial periods within the past few hundred thousand years, during the present ice age. The far previous ice ages' very survival was unsuspected.

Sunday, March 25, 2007


The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device to transmits and receives sound (most commonly voice and speech) through great distances. Most telephones function by means of electric signals over a complex public switched telephone network of equipment which allows almost any phone user to speak to almost any other.
Until relatively recently the word telephone could generally be assumed to refer to a landline phone. Now, cordless telephones and cell phones have become sufficiently common that no such presumption can be made. There are four principal means by which telephone signals are transmitted: throughout a traditional landline which uses physical dedicated wire connections; wireless or Radiotelephony, which transmits messages using either analog or digital radio signals; satellite telephones which bounce signals off of telecommunications satelites; and voice over internet protocol (VOIP) telephones, which use broadband internet cables.
The electric telephone is recognized to various inventors. The actual history is a subject of complex dispute. Among others Antonio Meucci, Philip Reis, and Alexander Graham Bell are all credited with inventing.

Tuesday, March 20, 2007


Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The source of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the main medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist — motion pictures, the silver screen, photoplays, picture shows, flicks — and most commonly movies. Academics and the English-speaking international society prefer to use film or "cinema", due to the colloquial nature of these other terms.
Films are created by recording actual people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. They include a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown quickly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Perhaps of more relevance is what causes the perception of motion — a psychological effect known as beta movement.

Wednesday, March 14, 2007


Beauty in nature is a general theme in modern life and in art, and books emphasizing beauty in nature fill large sections of libraries and bookstores. That nature has been depicted and famous by so much art, photography, poetry and other literature shows the strength with which many people associate nature and beauty. Why this association exists, and what the association consists of, is studied by the branch of philosophy called aesthetics. Beyond certain basic characteristics that many philosophers agree about to explain what is seen as beautiful, the opinions are almost endless.Many scientists, who study nature in more specific and organized ways, also share the conviction that nature is beautiful; the French mathematician, Jules Henri Poincaré (1854-1912) said:
The scientist does not study nature because it is useful; he studies it because he delights in it, and he delights in it because it is beautiful.
If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature were not worth meaningful, life would not be worth living. Of course I do not here speak of that beauty which strikes the senses, the beauty of character and of appearance; not that I undervalue such beauty, far from it, but it has not anything to do with science; I mean that profounder beauty which comes from the harmonious order of the parts and which a pure intelligence can grasp.
A general classical idea of beautiful art involves the word mimesis, the imitation of nature. Also in the realm of ideas about beauty in nature is that the perfect is indirect through symmetry, equal division, and other perfect mathematical forms and notions.

Friday, March 09, 2007


In medicine, a coma (from the Greek koma, meaning deep sleep) is a profound state of unconsciousness. A comatose patient cannot be awakened, fails to respond in general to pain or light, does not contain sleep-wake cycles, and does not take voluntary actions. Coma may result from a variety of conditions, including intoxication, metabolic abnormalities, central nervous system diseases, acute neurologic injuries such as stroke, and hypoxia. It may also be intentionally induced by pharmaceutical agents in order to preserve higher brain function following another form of brain trauma.

Distinctive phases of coma
Within coma itself, there are some categories that describe the severity of impairment. Contrary to popular belief, a patient in a comatose state does not always lay still and quiet. They may talk, walk, and perform other functions that may occasionally appear to be conscious acts, yet are not.
Two scales of measurement regularly used in TBI diagnosis to determine the phase of coma are the Glasgow Coma Scale and the Ranchos Los Amigos Scale. The GCS is a simple 15-point scale used by medical professionals to assess severity of neurologic trauma, and establish a prognosis. The RLAS is a more complex scale that describes up to eight separate levels of coma, and is often used in the first few weeks or months of coma while the patient is under nearer observation, and when shifts between levels are more frequent.

Monday, March 05, 2007

Language school

A language school is a place of education where one can study a foreign language. In most cases, classes at a language school are geared towards, but not limited to, talkative competence in a foreign language. Language learning in such schools usually supplements formal education or experience in a foreign language.
Students vary generally by, among other factors, age, educational background and work experience, as well as language ability. Teachers are likely to possess native fluency or acquired comptence in their target languages; formal qualifications to become a language teacher, however, vary by school, region or country.

Thursday, March 01, 2007


A gemstone is prized particularly for great beauty or perfection so appearance is almost always the most significant attribute of gemstones. Characteristics that make a stone beautiful or attractive are colour, unusual optical phenomena within the stone, an exciting inclusion such as a fossil, rarity, and sometimes the form of the natural crystal. Diamond is prized very much as a gemstone since it is the hardest naturally occurring substance known and is able to reflect light with fire and sparkle when faceted. However, diamonds are far from rare with millions of carats mined each year.
Traditionally, general gemstones were classified into precious stones (cardinal gems) and semi-precious stones. The former class was largely determined by a history of ecclesiastical, devotional or ceremonial use and rarity. Only five types of gemstones were considered precious: diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, and amethyst. In current usage by gemologists, all gems are considered precious, although four of the five original "cardinal gems" (excluding the now-common amethyst) are typically—but not always—the most valuable.
Rare or unusual gemstones, usually meant to include those gemstones which occur so infrequently in gem quality that they are only just known except to connoisseurs, include andalusite, axinite, cassiterite, clinohumite and iolite.

Friday, February 23, 2007

The Mouflon

he Mouflon is a variety of wild sheep and as such is one of the Caprinae or "goat antelopes". It is consideration to be one of the two ancestors for all modern domestic sheep breeds. It is red-brown with a dark back-stripe, light colored saddle patch and underparts. The males are horned and the females are horned or polled.
They originated in Southwest Asia, where the types known as Asiatic mouflon lives. They were introduced to the islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Cyprus through the neolithic period, perhaps as feral domesticated animals, where they naturalized to the mountainous interiors of these islands over the past few thousand years, giving rise to the species known as European mouflon . They are now unusual on the islands, but have been successfully introduced into central Europe, including Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, even in some northern European countries, such as Finland.
The scientific classification of the Mouflon is disputed but the European Mouflon may be considered as either Ovis musimon or Ovis ammon musimon.

Monday, February 19, 2007

World maps and projections

Maps of the world or big areas are often either 'political' or 'physical'. The most important purpose of the political map is to explain territorial borders; the purpose of the physical is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use. Geological maps demonstrate not only the physical surface, but characteristics of the underlying rock, fault lines, and subsurface structures.
Maps that depict the surface of the Earth also use a projection, a way of translating the three-dimensional actual surface of the geoid to a two-dimensional picture. Perhaps the best-known world-map projection is the Mercator Projection, initially designed as a form of nautical chart.
Airplane pilots use aeronautical charts based on a Lambert conformal conic projection, in which a cone is laid over the division of the earth to be mapped. The cone intersects the sphere (the earth) at one or two parallels which are selected as standard lines. This allows the pilots to plan a great-circle route approximation on a flat, two-dimensional chart.

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

Red rain in Kerala

The coloured rain of Kerala first fell on 25 July 2001, in the districts of Kottayam and Idukki in the southern part of the state. Some reports recommended that other colours of rain were also seen.Many more occurrences of the red rain were reported over the following 10 days, and then with thinning frequency until late September.According to locals, the first coloured rain was preceded by a loud thunderclap and flash of light, and followed by groves of trees shedding shriveled grey "burnt" leaves. Shriveled leaves and the disappearance and sudden formation of wells were also reported around the same time in the area.The colouration of the rain was due to red particles in suspension in the rain water, and when it fell, the red rain was at times as strongly coloured as blood. It typically fell over small areas, no more than a few square kilometres in size, and was sometimes so generalized that normal rain could be falling just a few metres away from red rain. Red rainfalls typically lasted less than 20 minutes.

Tuesday, February 06, 2007


Gold is a extremely sought-after valuable metal that for many centuries has been used as money, a store of value and in ornaments. The metal occurs as nugget or grains in rocks and in alluvial deposits and is one of the coinage metals. It is a soft, glossy, yellow, dense, malleable, and ductile (trivalent and univalent) change metal. Modern manufacturing uses include dentistry and electronics. Gold forms the basis for a financial typical used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank for International resolution (BIS). Its ISO currency code is XAU.
Gold is a tinny element with a trait yellow color, but can also be black or ruby when finely alienated, while colloidal solutions are intensely tinted and often purple. These colors are the effect of gold's plasmon frequency lying in the visible range, which causes red and yellow glow to be reflected, and blue light to be engrossed. Only silver colloids show the same interactions with light, albeit at a shorter occurrence, making silver colloids yellow in color.
Gold is a good conductor of temperature and electricity, and is not precious by air and most reagents. Heat, damp, oxygen, and most corrosive agents have very little chemical effect on gold, making it well-suited for use in coins and jewelry; equally, halogens will chemically alter gold, and aqua regia dissolve it.
Pure gold is too soft for ordinary use and is hard-boiled by alloying with silver, copper, and other metals. Gold and its lots of alloys are most often used in jewelry, coinage and as a typical for monetary exchange in various countries. When promotion it in the form of jewelry, gold is calculated in karats (k), with pure gold being 24k. However, it is more commonly sold in lower capacity of 22k, 18k, and 14k. A lower "k" indicates a higher percent of copper or silver assorted into the alloy, with copper being the more typically used metal between the two. Fourteen karat gold-copper alloy will be almost identical in color to definite bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce polish and added badges. Eighteen karat gold with a high copper content is establish in some traditional jewelry and will have a distinct, though not dominant copper cast, giving an attractively warm color. A comparable karat weight when alloyed with silvery metals will appear less humid in color, and some low karat white metal alloys may be sold as "white gold", silvery in exterior with a slightly yellow cast but far more resistant to decay than silver or sterling silver. Karat weights of twenty and higher is more general in modern jewelry. Because of its high electrical conductivity and confrontation to decay and other desirable combinations of physical and chemical properties, gold also emerged in the late 20th century as an vital industrial metal, particularly as thin plating on electrical card associates and connectors.

Friday, January 26, 2007

Journalism Basics

Journalism is a concrete, professionally oriented major that involves gathering, interpreting, distilling, and other reporting information to the general audiences through a variety of media means. Journalism majors learn about every possible kind of Journalism (including magazine, newspaper, online journalism, photojournalism, broadcast journalism, and public relations).
That's not all, though. In addition to dedicated training in writing, editing, and reporting, Journalism wants a working knowledge of history, culture, and current events. You'll more than likely be required to take up a broad range of courses that runs the range from statistics to the hard sciences to economics to history. There would also be a lot of haughty talk about professional ethics and civic responsibility too - and you'll be tested on it. To top it all off, you'll perhaps work on the university newspaper or radio station, or possibly complete an internship with a magazine or a mass media conglomerate.

Friday, January 12, 2007

Charleston earthquake – Pre-20th Century

The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the biggest quake to hit the Southeastern United States. It occurred at 9:50 p.m. on August 31, 1886. The earthquake caused severe damage in Charleston, South Carolina, damaging 2,000 buildings and causing $6 million value in damages, while in the entire city the buildings were only valued at approximately $24 million. Between 60 and 110 lives were lost.
Major damage occurred as far away as Tybee Island, Georgia (over 60 miles away) and structural injure was reported some hundred miles from Charleston (counting central Alabama, central Ohio, eastern Kentucky, southern Virginia, and western West Virginia). It was felt as far away as Boston to the North, Chicago and Milwaukee to the Northwest, as far West as New Orleans, as far South as Cuba, and also as far East as Bermuda.
Good Friday Earthquake – 20th Century
The Good Friday Earthquake (also known as the Great Alaska Earthquake) of Friday, March 27, 1964, was the most dominant earthquake in U.S. and North American history. As of 2006, it remains the third most powerful earthquake deliberate in modern times everywhere in the world. The magnitude 9.2 earthquake that resulted in 131 deaths was centered in Prince William Sound off the coastline of South Central Alaska. The powerful earthquake also caused some parts of Alaska to be liquefied, resulted much damage to property and leading to landslides.