Sunday, May 27, 2007

Introduction of Hard Disk

Hard disks were initially developed for use with computers. In the 21st century, applications for hard disks have extended beyond computers to consist of digital video recorders, digital audio players, personal digital assistants, digital cameras, and video game consoles. In 2005 the first mobile phones to contain hard disks were introduced by Samsung Group and Nokia. The need for large-scale, reliable storage, independent of a particular device, led to the beginning of configurations such as RAID, hardware such as network attached storage (NAS) devices, and systems such as storage area networks (SANs) for efficient access to large volumes of data.

Friday, May 18, 2007

Mealy machine

A Mealy machine is a finite state machine that generates an output based on its current state and an input. This means that the state diagram will include both an input and output signal for each transition edge. In contrast, the output of a Moore finite state machine depends only on the machine's current state; transitions have no input attached. However, for each Mealy machine there is an equivalent Moore machine whose states are the union of the Mealy machine's states and the Cartesian product of the Mealy machine's states and the input alphabet.

The name Mealy machine comes from that of the concept's promoter, G. H. Mealy, a state-machine lead the way who wrote "A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits" in 1955.

Mealy machines provide a basic mathematical model for cipher machines. Considering the input and output alphabet the Latin alphabet, for example, then a Mealy machine can be designed that given a string of letters can process it into a ciphered string. However, although you could probably use a Mealy model to describe Enigma, the state diagram would be too complex to provide feasible means of designing complex ciphering machines.

Sunday, May 13, 2007

History of pen drive

Flash drive with retractable USB connector several companies claim to be the first to have made-up the USB Flash Drive in 1998 through 2000. Trek was the first company to sell a USB Flash Drive in early 2000. However, their copyright does not describe the USB Flash Drive; instead, it describes a very broad family of storage devices, of which the USB Flash Drive is one.

M-Systems were working on developing the USB Flash Drive since 1998. The domain was registered by them in October 1999 and indicates that the USB Flash Drive was already in growth. In 2000 Dan Harkabi connected the M-System team and led the development of DiskOnKey. The industrial design was done by Ziba and the product won the IDEA award in 2001. M-System's patent rigorously describes the USB Flash Drive and its execution.

An IBM invention revelation RPS8-1999-0201 by Shimon Shmueli et al is the earliest known document to precisely and completely describe the USB-FD, and only the USB-FD. M-Systems manufactured the DiskOnKey for IBM, who in late 2000 was the first to sell the product in North America. Shmueli later founded KeyNetica, the first company that patented and developed the concept that mobile and smart storage devices are all one needs for mobile computing. Current implementers of the concept are U3 and Ceedo.

Wednesday, May 09, 2007

Integrated circuit

Integrated circuit

Integrated circuit showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery
Microchips with a clear window, showing the integrated circuit inside. Note the fine silver-colored wires that connect the included circuit to the pins of the package. A monolithic integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. A hybrid integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of human being semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, bonded to a substrate or circuit board. This article is about monumental integrated circuits.

Integrated circuits were made possible by investigational discoveries which showed that semiconductor devices could carry out the functions of vacuum tubes, and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device manufacture. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous development over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. There are two main advantages of Integrated Circuits over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their mechanism, are printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed a transistor at a time. Performance is high since the components switch quickly and consume little power, because the components are small and close together.

Tuesday, May 01, 2007

History of recording studio

Near the beginning recording studios often lacked isolation booths, baffles, and sometimes even speakers. Designed for exist recording of a whole band or performance, they attempted rather to group musicians and singers than to split them.

With the opening of multi-track recording, it became possible to record instruments and singers independently and at different times on different tracks on tape. Therefore, the emphasis shifted to isolation and sound-proofing. In the 1960s, recordings were analog recordings made using ¼-inch or ½-inch eight-track magnetic tape. By the early 1970s, recordings progressed to using 1-inch or 2-inch 16- or 32-track equipment. Most modern recording studios now use digital recording equipment and the number of tracks is partial only by the capacity of the mixing console or computer.

General function computers are presumptuous a larger role in the recording process, being able to replace the mixing consoles, recorders, synthesizers, samplers and sound effects devices. A computer thusly outfitted is called a Digital Audio Workstation. Admired software packages for recording studios include Dig design Pro Tools, Cubage and Nuendo by Steinberg, Motu Digital Performer, Able ton Live and Apple Logic Pro. Apple Macintosh hardware tends to be favored in the recording organization, though much software is also available for Microsoft Windows and Linux. There are also devoted computers which integrate a recorder, preamps, effects, and a mixing console; these devices are also called DAWs.

A small, private recording studio is occasionally called a project studio. Such studios often provide to specific needs of an individual artist, or are used as a non-commercial hobby. The first modern project studios came into being during the late 1980s, with the start of reasonable multitask recorders, synthesizers and microphones. The phenomenon has flourished with falling prices, MIDI equipment, and inexpensive digital hard-disk recording solutions.